Facts and Glossary
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Former Roman road from London to Holyhead improved by Thomas
Telford in the 1830s.
Abbot, Robert (1757 - 1829) Responsible for first UK
Robert (1728 -1792) Country house
Memorial. Monument to Prince
Albert erected after
death by Queen Victoria.
Anderton Boat Lift. Opened 1875 to carry boats between the
and Mersey Canal and the River Weaver, 50 feet lower. Originally
hydraulically powered with the counter balances working by transfer of
water. Now powered by electricity.
Arch, Joseph. (1826- 1922) Farm
labourer and campaigner for agricultural workers' rights. Founded the
National Agricultural Labourers' Union 1872 with him as first
president. Was MP for North West Norfolk 1885-1900.
Richard (1732-92) Pioneering
Arts and Crafts Late 19th century art style
John James (1785 - 1851) Painter.
Jane (1775-1817) Author
Top of page
Charles (1791 - 1871) Inventor.
Bassett's Liquorice Allsorts Confectionery assortment invented
when a salesman dropped his tray of samples and they became jumbled up
Joseph (1819-1891) Chief engineer
Aubrey (1872-1898) Controversial artist
Brummel (1778 -1849) George
Bryan. Regency dandy,
friend of George, Prince of Wales, later George IV.
Mrs Isabella (1837-65) Author of
a masterwork in the basics of cookery and home management.
Bingley Five Rise Staircase lock built into Leeds and
to carry it through a height difference of 60 feet. Opened 1774.
Eugenius (1818-1884) Engineer.
William (1757-1827) Artist and
Bligh, Capt William. (1754-1817) See Bounty, HMS
Boston Tea Party (1773) Event in which colonial Americans
their disdain for their British rulers by throwing a cargo of tea
overboard in Boston harbour. A group of men calling themselves the Sons
of Liberty, dressed as Mohawks boarded three British ships, the Beaver,
the Eleanor and the Dartmouth, and dumped forty-five tons of tea into
the water. The incident was a protest against British taxation
following the introduction of the Tea Act that allowed the British
-owned East India Company to sell directly to the colonies, thus
undercutting the price of tea being sold by local traders who were
dealing with the Dutch.
Thomas. (1705-1788) Inventor of the Sheffield plate
Matthew. Birmingham businessman
and metal item
who 'adopted' James Watt and
built the Soho Manufactury so that Watt
could produce his steam engines in a purpose-built centre.
Bounty, HMS. Ship commanded by Capt William Bligh
sailed to the Pacific in 1787. Two years later, on the home voyage,
Bligh's regime proved so cruel that the crew mutinied. They put Bligh
to sea in a small boat but he managed to return to the UK and brought
the remaining crew to justice. Appointed governor of New South Wales
where his treatment of staff provoked another mutiny, the Rum
Rebellion, in 1808. Made admiral in 1811.
village built for workers at
Bridgewater Canal. First purpose-built canal constructed to
Duke of Bridgewater's coal to Manchester from his mines near Wordsley.
Pavilion. Exuberant "Indian
Gothic" palace near
front designed by John Nash for the Prince Regent
and completed in
James (1716 - 1772) Canal
Britannia Bridge. Opened 1850.
Robert Stephenson's "tube"
the Menai Straits, Anglesey, part of the Chester & Holyhead
Family. Family of Yorkshire
Brooke, Rupert (1887 - 1915) Poet
Brown, Lancelot "Capability"
(1715 - 1783 ) Noted landscape
who trained on the grounds at Stowe in Buckinghamshire.
Isambard Kingdom (1806-59) Civil
Brunel, Marc Father of Isambard Kingdom Brunel and
of the Thames Tunnel
Hare. Edinburgh murderers of
Edward (1833-1898) Pre-Raphaelite
George Gordon 6th Lord Byron
(1788 - 1824) Poet
Campaign for pure beer. Launched by Kent and Sussex hop growers
after four people died and another 2,000 in Manchester and Liverpool
were made ill as a result of drinking ale with chemical additives.
Sulphuric acid used to treat the brewing sugar was found to be
contaminated with arsenic. Twelve Manchester retailers were prosecuted
over the error.
Edmund (1743 - 1823) Inventor and
Caudwell's Mill. Built 1874 by John Caudwell in Rowsley,
Water-turbine powered roller mill still producing flour in the early
Banana. Species of banana
grown by Joseph Paxton
time as gardener at Chatsworth House in Derbyshire.
Chance's Glassworks. Established at Smethwick, West Midlands
Made the glass for the Crystal Palace
for the Great Exhibition.
Samuel Taylor (1772-1834) Romantic poet.
John. (1776 - 1837) Painter.
Conway Bridge. Opened 1848 by Robert Stephenson. "Tube"
part of the Chester & Holyhead Railway. Was the template for the
Britannia Bridge opened two years later.
Cook, Capt James.
John Sell. (1782 - 1842) English
Watchmakers. One of the key
industries of the
from the mid 18th century.
Crippen, Hawley Harvey. (1861 - 1910) Notorious wife murderer.
variety artiste Belle Elmore and buried her remains in his cellar in
London then tried to escape by boat with his lover Ethel Le Neve to the
US. He was arrested on board after the captain received a radio message
saying that he was on the ship. Hanged 1910.
Samuel (1753 - 1827) Inventor and
Custer's Last Stand (1876) General Custer led the US army
Sioux at Little Bighorn
Cutty Sark. Cargo ship launched in 1869 when iron
replace timber in ship construction. The Cutty Sark is one of only
three remaining composite ships in the world, with an iron frame and
plank skin, representing the intermediate stage of construction. She
was, at the time, the fastest ship in the world and held the record for
the journey between Sydney and London. The ship is now moored at
John (1766 - 1844) Chemist.
Grace and William. Father and
in 1838, set out in a coble to rescue survivors from merchant ship
Forfarshire, that had foundered on Big Hawker in storms. They managed
to save nine people in two trips. (See Longstone)
Charles (1809-1882) Evolution
Darwin, Erasmus (1731 - 1802) Physician, poet, botanist
Grandfather of Charles.
Davison, Emily. Suffragette who threw herself under the
Anmer at the Derby in 1913 to protest for women's votes.
Sir Humphry (1778 - 1829) Chemist
Dee Bridge Disaster. Collapse in 1847 of Robert Stephenson's
bridge over the river Dee at Chester while a train was passing over it.
Seven people were killed when the train fell into the tidal river
below. The disaster led to a change in use of materials for bridges
with more use of wrought iron.
Delph "Nine" Locks. Flight of 8
locks on the Dudley Canal called Nine Locks because alterations in 1858
reduced the number bychanging the route.
Charles (1812-1870) Writer and social commentator.
Dunlop, John Boyd (1840-1921) Inventor.
Earthquake. In 1884 a massive earthquake hit Essex.
It was felt
away as Devon, North Yorkshire and Belgium and caused extensive damage
throughout the county.
Eiffel Tower. Monument in central Paris built by
Eiffel for the Paris exhibition of 1889. The construction was an
illustration of the use of steel.
Albert (1879 - 1955) Relativity
George. (1819-80) Pseudonym of
Mary Ann Evans,
William. (1787 - 1849) English
oil painter and
Evans, Arthur. Archaeologist who worked on the remains
palace at Knossos from 1900
Michael. (1791 - 1867)
Flatland. Book by Edwin A Abbott, published 1884.
The story of A
Square, a two-dimentional being who refuses to accept the existence of
a third dimension until he encounters a sphere.
William Henry (1800-1877)
Inventor of the
Foxton Locks. Leicestershire. Flight of 10 locks on
Canal opened 1812 to carry water through a 75 feet level difference. In
1898 a steam-powered inclined plane was constructed alongside the
locks, which took just five minutes to carry boats between the levels,
compared with more than an hour to navigate the locks.
Benjamin (1706-1790) Philadelphia
printer and experimenter.
Thomas (1727 - 88) English artist
Luigi. Electricty experimenter.
Gatling, Richard. (1818 - 1903) Inventor of the Gatling
repeating "machine" gun capable of firing 250 shots a minute. Later
improvements increased the rate to 3,000. Gatling also designed farm
equipment including a machine for thinning cotton and one for sowing
Scott, Sir George.
Scott, Sir Giles. (1880 -
Hannah. Cookbook author.
Gothic Revival. Style of architecture from the 1780s (an
"Gothick" had happened about 40 years before) based on 12th century
ideals featured in many of England's fine cathedrals. Continued for
some time. The new Houses of Parliament built in 1839 were Gothic
Revival in style.
Granny Smith. Was a real person, Maria Ann Smith, who
outside Sydney, Australia. She left some rotting apples at the bottom
of her garden and noticed a new variety growing a few years later. The
crisp, green fruit was first imported into the UK in the 1830s.
Thomas. (1716-1771) Poet. Author
of Elegy in a
SS. All iron, propeller driven
Brunel and launched at Bristol in 1843.
Now at Bristol Docks.
Exhibition (1851) Held at Crystal Palace. Exhibition
was new in Great Britain and the Empire at the time.
The. (1858) London became
sewage when the streams through the city and feeding the Thames could
no longer cope with the volume of effluent being produced. Coupled with
an unusually warm summer the problem produced such a foul smell
throughout the city that chemical soaked sacks had to be hung at the
windows of the House of Commons. The Stink eventually led to adoption
of Bazalgette's plans for a
new sewage system.
Great Western Royal Hotel. First purpose built railway hotel in
designed by Philip Hardwick and opened in 1852 to front Brunel's
SS. Iron and timber,
IK Brunel and launched at Bristol in
Gun Barrel Proof House. Testing station established in
1831 for proofing gun barrels. The construction of the city's own proof
house removed the need for guns manufactured in Birmingham to travel to
London for testing before being sold.
Edmond (1656-1742) Astronomer.
James. (1720 - 1778) Inventor and
William. (1738 - 1822)
Sir Rowland. Introduced in 1840 the penny post, paid for
Penny Black stamp.
William (1697-1764) Artist and
Hooke's Law. Hooke's Law states that, in an elastic
proportional to stress. That's how spring scales work.
Horseley Ironworks. Established Tipton, West Midlands in
Responsible for many of the classic "black and white" cast iron bridges
found on the Birmingham Canal Navigations.
T H (1825 - 1895) "Darwin's bulldog"
Ickworth House. House built in 1795, with a large
curved corridors, by the 4th Earl of Bristol to display his art
Jacobethan. Style of architecture that underwent a
Based on the Jacobean and Eliabethan styles from the 16th century.
CharlecoteHouse near Stratford Upon Avon in Warwickshire was rebuilt in
Jacobethan style between 1828 -45.
Edward. (1749 - 1823) Medical
Jerome K. Writer.
Men in a
Boat. To Say Nothing of the Dog"(1889).
William. (1745-1814) Civil engineer
Samuel. (1709 - 1784 ) English
Sir Edwin. (1802 - 1873) Artist.
Edward. (1812-1888) Artist and
Lewis Chess Set. 12th century chess pieces found on the
in 1831. Made of walrus ivory and whale teeth. Scandinavian in origin.
Livingstone, David. Doctor and explorer who was found by
Morton Stanley in Africa in 1871 after the journalist organised an
expedition to track him down.
The Lizard Peninsula. The most
southerly point of mainland
a lighthouse built 1752.
Lighthouse. Built 1826 on
Longstone, one of the
Islands. Home of Grace Darling and her father William.
Lunar Society. Group of learned gents who met in
1765 and 1813 and held their meetings on the night of the full moon in
order to find their way home after dark. (Hence the name, which was
officially adopted in 1775) Members included Matthew Boulton, Joseph
Priestley, James Watt, Erasmus Darwin, Samuel Galton, James Keir,
Lune Aqueduct. Completed 1796 and engineered by John
Aqueduct carries the Lancaster Canal over the River Lune.
Guglielmo Wireless engineer.
John ( 1878 - 1967). Poet.
Henry (1771 - 1831) Precision
Megarak. A combination of the words megalith and
anorak. One who
very interested in megaliths, standing stones, prehistoric stone
Gregor. (1822 - 84) Genetics
Merrick, John (1862-90) "The Elephant Man"
Sir John Everett (1829-96)
Mold Cape Gold ceremonial "cape" found in 1833.
artefact found in a burial mound known as Bryn yr Ellyllon or the Mound
of the Goblins near Mold in north Wales. The cape would have been
useless for everyday wear because it severely restricted arm movement
so it was probably a ceremonial piece or even made to be worn by the
grave's occupant. Also in the mound were fragments of a skeleton, some
bronze strips and a number of amber beads. Now in the British Museum.
Muntz's Metal. Patented by George Frederick Muntz
John. (1752 - 1835) Regency
National Trust, The. Charity founded in 1895 by Octavia
to provide "sitting rooms in the country for the poor". Now owns more
than 200 historic houses, 49 industrial monuments and more than 600
miles of coastline. Also owns at least one complete village. National
Trust land is inalienable. The only landowner that is exempt from
compulsory purchase without special parliamentary intervention.
Neoclassicism. Late 18th century reaction to the
excesses of the
earlier rococo and baroque styles.
Netherton Tunnel. Almost two-mile long canal tunnel
and Birmingham canals at Netherton, West Midlands. Built in 1858 as
part of a general improvement to waterways in the area, it is one of
only three tunnels in the UK to have two towpaths.
Thomas (1663-1729) Engineer.
Nightingale, Florence. ( d. 1910) Crimean War nurse who, in
sent to the front to serve with 38 nurses at the Scutari Military
Ohm's Law Established 1827. States that voltage
resistance. (V = I x R)
Osterley Park. Robert Adam designed house built 1761-
maintained by the National Trust.
Wilfred (1893 - 1918) Poet
Parthenon Marbles. Also known as the Elgin Marbles. Removed
Parthenon in Athens by Lord Elgin, the British Ambassador to Turkey in
1812. Now in the British Museum and centre of a campaign to have them
returned to Greece.
Louis. (1822 - 85) Medical
Pavlov, Ivan (1849 - 1936)
Pavlov's Dogs. See Pavlov, Ivan
Joseph (1803 - 1865) Gardener,
of the Crystal Palace.
Pimm, James. London bar owner. Inventor in 1823 of
Samuel (1824-98) Inventor.
Poet Laureate. Royal Appointment with no obligations,
are expected to produce works commemorating national events. Among
those who held the title were William (1843-1850) and
Alfred, Lord WordsworthTennyson
(1850 - 1892)
Port Sunlight. "Ideal"
village built for workers at
factory on Wirral
Beatrix (1866-1943) Author,
artist and Lake
Preventative Water Guard Early name for HM Coastguard.
Joseph (1733 - 1804) Chemist.
Augustus Welby Northmore
Quebec, Battle of. (1759) Britain Conquers Canada
Rebecca Riots (1842) Protests in South West Wales.
Mainly about toll charges on public roads but symptomatic of general
unrest over the conditions of the poor at the time. The rioters dressed
a women to get close to toll houses so that they could damage or
destroy them. Hence the name.
Regency. The time during the
periodic bouts of
George III when his son (also George) the Prince of Wales was in charge
of the country. The Regency gave its name to a particularly elegant
style in clothing, art and architecture.
Sir John (1761-1821) Scottish
Sir Joshua (1723 - 92) English
Wm Heath. (1872-1944)
Rocket. Locomotive built by George and Robert
1829, won time trials to find the fastest loco for the Liverpool
-Manchester Railway (58 Km/h)
Rococo. 18th century design element from France
that was highly
and included lots of rocks and shells, believed to be derived from the
French word "roquaille" meaning rock-work. Continued to around 1750s,
when it was replaced by neo-classicism. Inspired the Art Nouveau
movement in the 1890s.
Rosetta Stone. Key tool in deciphering Egyptian
Rosetta Stone was found in 1799 in the village of Raschid and had the
same inscription in Greek and Egyptian, enabling French scholar Jean
Francois Champollion (1790 - 1832) to translate the language.
Dante Gabriel (1828 - 1896) One
of the founders of the
Ruskin, John (1819 - 1900)
Artist, poet and
Ernest (1871 -
Sandwich, John Montagu, 4th Earl of. Gave his name
to the snack
after refusing to leave the gambling table during an all night session.
He told his servants to bring sliced meat and bread to the table then
made his own dinner.
village built by mill owner
Titus Salt for his
workers in West Yorkshire.
Scarborough Spa Bridge, North Yorkshire. Opened 1827 as a toll
to reach the spa where visitors to Scarborough would take the "healing"
waters of a cliffside spring. The bridge spans a glacial valley and is
414 feet long. The Valley Bridge, close by but wide enough to take a
road, opened in 1865.
Scurvy. Disease caused by lack of vitamin C.
Causes swollen and
bleeding gums and general decline frequently resulting in death. Common
among sailors before the citrus ration was introduced in 1795 in the RN
and 1867 in the merchant marine.
Seacole, Mary (1805-1881) Pioneering nurse in the
Seven Years War. (1756-63) Fought worldwide between the
French for colonial possessions in America and India; and between
Prussia, Hanover and Britain against an alliance of Austria, France,
Russia and Sweden in Europe.
John. (1724-1792) Civil engineer
Soho Manufactory. Purpose built factory in Smethwick, West
constructed in 1796 by Matthew Boulton
for James Watt where many of
Watt's steam engines were constructed.
Souter Lighthouse. Coast Road, Whitburn, Tyne and Wear.
1871. First to use alternating current to power its light.
Speeding Fine, UK's first. Imposed in 1898 on motoring
Grose of Northampton who was travelling at an amazing 16 miles an hour!
Stanley, Henry Morton. (d.1904) Journalist who in 1871, found
explorer David Livingstone on the shores of Lake Tanganyika and greeted
him with the famous words "Dr Livingstone, I presume".
Laurence. (1713 -1768 ) Author.
Stephenson, George. (1781-1848) Engineer
Robert. (1803-1859) Engineer. Son of George
Stockton and Darlington Railway. The world's first passenger
opened in 1825.
Strutt, Jedediah () Inventor
Talking pictures. The first attempt to make moving images
was made in 1904 at Fulham Theatre where cinematograph and phonograph
were played concurrently.
Marriott Ogle. (1835-1887) Engineer
Tardebigge Locks. Flight of 30 narrow locks near
Worcester and Birmingham Canal, that carry the waterway through 217
Thomas. (1757-1834) Engineer.
Alfred, (Lord). (1809-1892)Poet
Theatre Royal, Bury St Edmunds. Largely unaltered
built 1819. Still used all year round for plays and concerts as well as
offering behind-the-scenes tours.
Henry David. (1817 - 1862)
Throckmorton Coat. Made between sunrise and sunset, 25 June
the wool of two sheep belonging to Sir John Throckmorton, Bart. They
were sheared, the wool spun, yarn spooled, warped, loomed and woven,
and the cloth was burred, milled, rowed, dyed, dried, cut and pressed.
Then the coat was made up. Total time 13 hours 20 minutes.
Titanic. Liner built at Harland and Wolff
shipyard in Belfast.
April 14, 1912 on its maiden voyage across the Atlantic after hitting
an iceberg. The wreck is about 365 nautical miles off Newfoundland in
12,850 feet of water. More than 1,500 passengers and crew lost their
lives in the disaster although around 700 survived.
Tolpuddle Martyrs. Six farm
labourers from teh Dorset villageof Tolpuddle who were transported to
Australia (1834) after forming a union and threatening to withdraw
their labour unless they were guarranteed minimum pay levels.
Birmingham. The vast number of
small metal items in
or steel that were manufactured in Birmingham to appeal to the mass
market. Matthew Boulton was a well known Birmingham toy maker.
Richard. (1771 - 1833) Engineer
Gogh, Vincent. (1853 - 1890)
Victoria Building. Liverpool University's central building
1892 and designed by architect Sir Alfred Waterhouse. The gothic
structure with its ornate clock tower is believed to be the origin of
the phrase "red brick university".
Allesandro (1745 - 1827)
Vulcan The first all-iron sailing ship. Built in
Wallis, Barnes (1887 - 1979) inventor of the WW2
James (1736 - 1819) Scientific
Webb, Matthew (1848-1883) First person to swim the
Josiah. (1730 - 1795) Potter.
Founder of the
Stoke on Trent and famous for the blue and white ware manufactured
there. There are fine examples of his work at the Lady Lever Art
Gallery in Port Sunlight as well as at the Wedgwood museum in Stoke.
West, William (1783-1854) Toy theatre maker.
River Wey. One of the first British rivers to be
Guildford to Weybridge on the Thames. Opened 1653.
Gilbert. (1720 - 1793) Clergyman
Wicken Fen. One of the UK's oldest nature reserves,
part of the
original fen land that once covered large areas of Norfolk,
Cambridgeshire and South Lincolnshire. Drainage engine built 1910 to
claim land back for farming.
Wilberforce, William (1759 - 1833) Social reformer and
campaigner. Politician in William Pitt's Tory government but supported
Whig campaigns for abolition. Died a month before the Bill outlawing
slavery was passed.
Oscar (1854-1900) Artist and writer
Withering, William (1741 - 1799) Medical pioneer
Winchester Cathedral. Saved (1906-11) from flood that formed
foundations. The flood formed because the Medieval structure had been
constructed on a raft of birch wood floating on marshland and overlying
peat. As water seeped through the peat it formed a lake around the wall
foundations. Diver William Walker spent many months below the
lifting out the peat and replacing it with concrete.
Wooten Wawen Aqueduct. Warwickshire. A cast iron trough
carries the Stratford-upon-Avon Canal. Opened 1813.
Wright, Joseph (of Derby) Artist. (1734 - 97)